11.5. RTEMS Tester and Run

The RTEMS Tester is a test tool that provides a command line interface to run test executable on supported targets. The tool provides back-end support for common simulators, debuggers and boot loaders. Board support package (BSP) configurations for RTEMS are provided and can be used to run all the tests in the RTEMS test suite. The tool and it’s framework is not specific to RTEMS and can be configured to run any suitable application.

RTEMS is an embedded operating system and is cross-compiled on a range of host machines. The executables run on the target hardware and this can vary widely from open source simulators, commercial simulators, debuggers with simulators, debuggers with hardware specific pods and devices to targe boot loaders. Testing RTEMS requires the cross-compiled test executable is transferred to the target hardware, executed and the output captured and returned to the test host where it is analyzed to determine the test result.

Running the RTEMS tests on your target is very important. It provides you with a traceable record showing that your RTEMS version and its tools are working at the level the RTEMS development team expect when releasing RTEMS. Being able to easily run the tests and verify the results is critical in maintaining a high standard.

11.5.1. Available BSP testers

You can list the available BSP testers with:

$ rtems-test --list-bsps


The list is growing all the time and if your BSP is not supported we encourage you to add it and submit the configuration back to the project.

Some of the BSPs may appear more than once in the list. These are aliased BSP configurations that may use a different back-end. An example is the erc32 BSP. There is the erc32 tester which uses the GDB back-end and the erc32-run tester which uses the run command for erc32. We will show how to use rtems-test command with the erc32 BSP because it is easy to build an use.

11.5.2. Building RTEMS Tests

Build the RTEMS Kernel (See RTEMS Kernel) by cloning the repository, running the bootstrap procedure, building and finally installing the kernel. Be sure to enable tests by using --enable-tests option with configure after running bootstrap.

$ ../../rtems.git/configure --target=sparc-rtems5 \
                    --enable-tests --enable-rtemsbsp=erc32
$ make

Add the -j option to the make command with the number of cores to run a parallel build.

Building all the tests takes time and it uses more disk so be patient. When finished all the tests will have been built. Some BSPs may require a post-build process to be run on the RTEMS ELF executable to create an image suitable for execution. This can be built into the configuration script and the tester will perform a pre-test command to covert the executable to a suitable format for your target.

Before running all the tests it is a good idea to run the hello test. The hello test is an RTEMS version of the classic “Hello World” example and running it shows you have a working tool chain and build of RTEMS ready to run the tests. Using the run with the ERC32 BSP the command is:

$ sparc-rtems5-run sparc-rtems5/c/erc32/testsuites/samples/hello/hello.exe

Hello World

The run command is the GDB simulator without the GDB part.

Running the example using GDB:

$ sparc-rtems5-gdb sparc-rtems5/c/erc32/testsuites/samples/hello/hello.exe
GNU gdb (GDB) 7.12
Copyright (C) 2016 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.  Type "show copying"
and "show warranty" for details.
This GDB was configured as "--host=x86_64-linux-gnu --target=sparc-rtems5".
Type "show configuration" for configuration details.
For bug reporting instructions, please see:
Find the GDB manual and other documentation resources online at:
For help, type "help".
Type "apropos word" to search for commands related to "word"...
Reading symbols from
(gdb) target sim
Connected to the simulator.
(gdb) load
(gdb) r
Starting program: sparc-rtems5/c/erc32/testsuites/samples/hello/hello.exe

Hello World
[Inferior 1 (process 42000) exited normally]
(gdb) q

The command r is used to debug set break points before issuing the GDB run command.

There are currently close to 500 separate tests and you can run them all with a single RTEMS Tester command.

11.5.3. Running the Tests

The rtems-test command line accepts a range of options. These are discussed later in the manual. Any command line argument without a prefix is a test executable. You can pass more than one executable on the command line. If the executable is a path to a directory the directories under that path are searched for any file with a .exe extension. This is the default extension for RTEMS executables built within RTEMS.

To run the erc32 tests enter the following command from the top of the erc32 BSP build tree:

$ ~/development/rtems/test/rtems-tools.git/tester/rtems-test \
         --log=log_erc32_run \
         --rtems-bsp=erc32-run \
         --rtems-tools=$HOME/development/rtems/5 \
RTEMS Testing - Tester, 5.not_released
[ 1/13] p:0  f:0  u:0  e:0  I:0  B:0  t:0  i:0  | sparc/erc32: base_sp.exe
[ 2/13] p:0  f:0  u:0  e:0  I:0  B:0  t:0  i:0  | sparc/erc32: capture.exe
[ 3/13] p:0  f:0  u:0  e:0  I:0  B:0  t:0  i:0  | sparc/erc32: cdtest.exe
[ 4/13] p:0  f:0  u:0  e:0  I:0  B:0  t:0  i:0  | sparc/erc32: fileio.exe
[ 5/13] p:2  f:0  u:0  e:0  I:0  B:0  t:0  i:0  | sparc/erc32: hello.exe
[ 6/13] p:2  f:0  u:0  e:0  I:0  B:0  t:0  i:0  | sparc/erc32: cxx_iostream.exe
[ 8/13] p:2  f:0  u:0  e:0  I:0  B:0  t:2  i:0  | sparc/erc32: minimum.exe
[ 7/13] p:2  f:0  u:0  e:0  I:0  B:0  t:2  i:0  | sparc/erc32: loopback.exe
[ 9/13] p:3  f:0  u:0  e:0  I:0  B:0  t:3  i:0  | sparc/erc32: nsecs.exe
[10/13] p:3  f:0  u:0  e:0  I:0  B:0  t:3  i:0  | sparc/erc32: paranoia.exe
[11/13] p:4  f:0  u:0  e:0  I:0  B:0  t:3  i:0  | sparc/erc32: pppd.exe
[12/13] p:6  f:0  u:0  e:0  I:0  B:0  t:3  i:0  | sparc/erc32: ticker.exe
[13/13] p:6  f:0  u:0  e:0  I:0  B:0  t:3  i:0  | sparc/erc32: unlimited.exe
Passed:         7
Failed:         0
User Input:     0
Expected Fail:  0
Indeterminate:  0
Benchmark:      0
Timeout:        5
Invalid:        1
Total:         13
Average test time: 0:00:27.963000
Testing time     : 0:06:03.519012
  • The RTEMS Tester’s test command. In this example we are using an absolute path.
  • The --log option sends the output to a log file. By default only failed tests log the complete output.
  • Select the erc32 BSP and use GDB.
  • Path to the RTEMS tools so GDB can be found.
  • Path to the erc32 BSP built with all tests to run. If you add subdirectories to the path specific tests can be run.
  • The output has been shortened so it fits nicely here.
  • The test results shows passes, fails, timeouts, and invalid results. In this run 13 tests passed and 5 tests timed out and 1 is invalid. The timeouts are probably due to the tests not having enough execute time to complete. The default timeout is 180 seconds and some of the interrupt tests need longer. The amount of time depends on the performance of your host CPU running the simulations.
  • The output shows the average time per test and the total time taken to run all the tests.
  • If the path to the testsuites was put to sparc-rtems5/c/erc32/testsuites instead of sparc-rtems5/c/erc32/testsuites/samples then all the executables would have been tested and not just those in samples.

This BSP requires the --rtems-tools option because the SPARC GDB is the sparc-rtems4.11-gdb command that is part of the RTEMS tools. Not every BSP will require this option so you will need to check the specifics of the BSP configuration to determine if it is needed.

The output you see is each test starting to run. The rtems-test command by default runs multiple tests in parallel so you will see a number start quickly and then new tests start as others finish. The output shown here is from an 8 core processor so the first 8 are started in parallel and the status shows the order in which they actually started, which is not 1 to 8.

The test start line shows the current status of the tests. The status reported is when the test starts and not the result of that test. A fail, timeout or invalid count changing means a test running before this test started failed, not the starting test. The status here has 7 tests passed, no failures, 5 timeouts and 1 invalid test.

[ 5/13] p:2  f:0  u:0  e:0  I:0  B:0  t:0  i:0  | sparc/erc32: hello.exe
  • [ 5/13] indicates the test number, in this case test 5 of 13 tests.
  • p is the passed test count (2 in this case)
  • f is the failed test count (0 in this case)
  • u is the count for test marked as “user-input” as they expect input from user
  • e is the expected-fail count (tests that are expected to fail)
  • I is the count for tests the results of which are indeterminate
  • B is the count for benchmarked tests
  • t is the timeout test count
  • i is the invalid test count.
  • sparc/erc32 is the architecture and BSP names.
  • hello.exe is the executable name.

The test log records all the tests and results. The logging mode by default only provides the output history if a test fails, times out, or is invalid. The time taken by each test is also recorded.

The tests must complete in a specified time or the test is marked as timed out. The default timeout is 3 minutes and can be globally changed using the --timeout command line option. The time required to complete a test can vary. When simulators are run in parallel the time taken depends on the specifics of the host machine being used. A test per core is the most stable method even though more tests can be run than available cores. If your machine needs longer or you are using a VM you may need to lengthen the timeout.

11.5.4. Test Status

Tests can be marked with one of the following:

  • Pass
  • Fail
  • User-input
  • Expected-fail
  • Indeterminate
  • Benchmark
  • Timeout
  • Invalid

The RTEMS console or stdout output from the test is needed to determine the result of the test. Pass

A test passes if the start and end markers are seen in the test output. The start marker is *** and the end mark is *** END OF TEST. All tests in the RTEMS test suite have these markers. Fail

A test fails if the start marker is seen and there is no end marker. User-input

A test marked as “user-input” as it expects input from user Expected-fail

A test that is expected to fail. Indeterminate

A test the results of which are indeterminate. Benchmark

A benchmarked test. Timeout

If the test does not complete within the timeout setting the test is marked as having timed out. Invalid

If no start marker is seen the test is marked as invalid. If you are testing on real target hardware things can sometimes go wrong and the target may not initialize or respond to the debugger in an expected way.

11.5.5. Logging

The following modes of logging are available:

  • All (all)
  • Failures (failures)
  • None (none)

The mode is controlled using the command line option --log-mode using the values listed above. All

The output of all tests is written to the log. Failures

The output of the all tests that do not pass is written to the log. None

No output is written to the log.

The output is tagged so you can determine where it comes from. The following is the complete output for the In Memory File System test imfs_fslink.exe running on a Coldfire MCF5235 using GDB and a BDM pod:

[ 11/472] p:9   f:0   t:0   i:1   | m68k/mcf5235: imfs_fslink.exe
> gdb: ..../bin/m68k-rtems4.11-gdb -i=mi --nx --quiet ..../imfs_fslink.exe
> Reading symbols from ..../fstests/imfs_fslink/imfs_fslink.exe...
> done.
> target remote | m68k-bdm-gdbserver pipe 003-005
> Remote debugging using | m68k-bdm-gdbserver pipe 003-005
> m68k-bdm: debug module version 0
> m68k-bdm: detected MCF5235
> m68k-bdm: architecture CF5235 connected to 003-005
> m68k-bdm: Coldfire debug module version is 0 (5206(e)/5235/5272/5282)
> Process 003-005 created; pid = 0
> 0x00006200 in ?? ()
> thb *0xffe254c0
> Hardware assisted breakpoint 1 at 0xffe254c0
> continue
> Continuing.
] External Reset
] ColdFire MCF5235 on the BCC
] Firmware v3b.1a.1a (Built on Jul 21 2004 17:31:28)
] Copyright 1995-2004 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.  All Rights Reserved.
] Enter 'help' for help.
> Temporary breakpoint
> 1, 0xffe254c0 in ?? ()
> load
> Loading section .text, size 0x147e0 lma 0x40000
> Loading section .data, size 0x5d0 lma 0x547e0
> Start address 0x40414, load size 85424
> Transfer rate: 10 KB/sec, 1898 bytes/write.
> b bsp_reset
> Breakpoint 2 at 0x41274: file ..../shared/bspreset_loop.c, line 14.
> continue
> Continuing.
] dBUG>
] Initializing filesystem IMFS
] *** LINK TEST ***
] link creates hardlinks
] test if the stat is the same
] chmod and chown
] unlink then stat the file
] *** END OF LINK TEST ***
] Shutting down filesystem IMFS
> Breakpoint
> 2, bsp_reset () at ..../m68k/mcf5235/../../shared/bspreset_loop.c:14
> 14    {
Result: passed     Time: 0:00:10.045447
  • GDB command line (Note: paths with ‘….’ have been shortened)
  • Lines starting with > are from GDB’s console.
  • Line starting with ] are from the target’s console.
  • The result with the test time.

11.5.6. Reporting

The RTEMS Tester supports output in a machine parsable format. This can be enabled using the options “–report-path” and “–report-format”. Currently, JSON output is supported using these options like so: ‘–report-path=”report” –report-format=json’

This will produce a file “report.json” that contains output equivalent to the “failure” logging mode.

11.5.7. Running Tests in Parallel

The RTEMS Tester supports parallel execution of tests by default. This only makes sense if the test back-end can run in parallel without resulting in resource contention. Simulators are an example of back-ends that can run in parallel. A hardware debug tool like a BDM or JTAG pod can manage only a single test at once so the tests need to be run one at a time.

The test framework manages the test jobs and orders the output in the log in test order. Output is held for completed tests until the next test to be reported has finished.

11.5.8. Command Line Help

The rtems-test command line accepts a range of options. You can review the available option by the --help option:

RTEMS Tools Project (c) 2012-2014 Chris Johns
Options and arguments:
--always-clean               : Always clean the build tree, even with an error
--debug-trace                : Debug trace based on specific flags
--dry-run                    : Do everything but actually run the build
--force                      : Force the build to proceed
--jobs=[0..n,none,half,full] : Run with specified number of jobs, default: num CPUs.
--keep-going                 : Do not stop on an error.
--list-bsps                  : List the supported BSPs
--log file                   : Log file where all build output is written to
--macros file[,file]         : Macro format files to load after the defaults
--no-clean                   : Do not clean up the build tree
--quiet                      : Quiet output (not used)
--report-path                : Report output base path (file extension will be added)
--report-format              : Formats in which to report test results: json
--log-mode                   : Log modes, failures (default),all,none
--rtems-bsp                  : The RTEMS BSP to run the test on
--rtems-tools                : The path to the RTEMS tools
--target                     : Set the target triplet
--timeout                    : Set the test timeout in seconds (default 180 seconds)
--trace                      : Trace the execution
--warn-all                   : Generate warnings