35. Red-Black Trees¶
The Red-Black Tree API is an interface to the SuperCore (score) rbtree implementation. Within RTEMS, red-black trees are used when a binary search tree is needed, including dynamic priority thread queues and non-contiguous heap memory. The Red-Black Tree API provided by RTEMS is:
rtems_rtems_rbtree_node- Red-Black Tree node embedded in another struct
rtems_rtems_rbtree_control- Red-Black Tree control node for an entire tree
rtems_rtems_rbtree_initialize- initialize the red-black tree with nodes
rtems_rtems_rbtree_initialize_empty- initialize the red-black tree as empty
rtems_rtems_rbtree_set_off_tree- Clear a node’s links
rtems_rtems_rbtree_root- Return the red-black tree’s root node
rtems_rtems_rbtree_min- Return the red-black tree’s minimum node
rtems_rtems_rbtree_max- Return the red-black tree’s maximum node
rtems_rtems_rbtree_left- Return a node’s left child node
rtems_rtems_rbtree_right- Return a node’s right child node
rtems_rtems_rbtree_parent- Return a node’s parent node
rtems_rtems_rbtree_are_nodes_equal- Are the node’s equal ?
rtems_rtems_rbtree_is_empty- Is the red-black tree empty ?
rtems_rtems_rbtree_is_min- Is the Node the minimum in the red-black tree ?
rtems_rtems_rbtree_is_max- Is the Node the maximum in the red-black tree ?
rtems_rtems_rbtree_is_root- Is the Node the root of the red-black tree ?
rtems_rtems_rbtree_find- Find the node with a matching key in the red-black tree
rtems_rtems_rbtree_predecessor- Return the in-order predecessor of a node.
rtems_rtems_rbtree_successor- Return the in-order successor of a node.
rtems_rtems_rbtree_extract- Remove the node from the red-black tree
rtems_rtems_rbtree_get_min- Remove the minimum node from the red-black tree
rtems_rtems_rbtree_get_max- Remove the maximum node from the red-black tree
rtems_rtems_rbtree_peek_min- Returns the minimum node from the red-black tree
rtems_rtems_rbtree_peek_max- Returns the maximum node from the red-black tree
rtems_rtems_rbtree_insert- Add the node to the red-black tree
The Red-Black Trees API is a thin layer above the SuperCore Red-Black Trees implementation. A Red-Black Tree is defined by a control node with pointers to the root, minimum, and maximum nodes in the tree. Each node in the tree consists of a parent pointer, two children pointers, and a color attribute. A tree is parameterized as either unique, meaning identical keys are rejected, or not, in which case duplicate keys are allowed.
Users must provide a comparison functor that gets passed to functions that need to compare nodes. In addition, no internal synchronization is offered within the red-black tree implementation, thus users must ensure at most one thread accesses a red-black tree instance at a time.
A red-black tree is made up from nodes that orginate from a red-black tree
control object. A node is of type
rtems_rtems_rbtree_node. The node is
designed to be part of a user data structure. To obtain the encapsulating
structure users can use the
RTEMS_CONTAINER_OF macro. The node can be
placed anywhere within the user’s structure and the macro will calculate the
structure’s address from the node’s address.
A red-black tree is rooted with a control object. Red-Black Tree control
provide the user with access to the nodes on the red-black tree. The
implementation does not require special checks for manipulating the root of the
red-black tree. To accomplish this the
is treated as a
rtems_rtems_rbtree_node structure with a
and left child pointing to the root.
Examples for using the red-black trees can be found in the