37. Constant Bandwidth Server Scheduler API¶

37.1. Introduction¶

Unlike simple schedulers, the Constant Bandwidth Server (CBS) requires a special API for tasks to indicate their scheduling parameters. The directives provided by the CBS API are:

37.2. Background¶

37.2.1. Constant Bandwidth Server Definitions¶

The Constant Bandwidth Server API enables tasks to communicate with the scheduler and indicate its scheduling parameters. The scheduler has to be set up first (by defining CONFIGURE_SCHEDULER_CBS macro).

The difference to a plain EDF is the presence of servers. It is a budget aware extention of the EDF scheduler, therefore, tasks attached to servers behave in a similar way as with EDF unless they exceed their budget.

The intention of servers is reservation of a certain computation time (budget) of the processor for all subsequent periods. The structure rtems_cbs_parameters determines the behavior of a server. It contains deadline which is equal to period, and budget which is the time the server is allowed to spend on CPU per each period. The ratio between those two parameters yields the maximum percentage of the CPU the server can use (bandwidth). Moreover, thanks to this limitation the overall utilization of CPU is under control, and the sum of bandwidths of all servers in the system yields the overall reserved portion of processor. The rest is still available for ordinary tasks that are not attached to any server.

In order to make the server effective to the executing tasks, tasks have to be attached to the servers. The rtems_cbs_server_id is a type denoting an id of a server and rtems_id a type for id of tasks. .. index:: CBS periodic tasks

Each task’s execution begins with a default background priority (see the chapter Scheduling Concepts to understand the concept of priorities in EDF). Once you decide the tasks should start periodic execution, you have two possibilities. Either you use only the Rate Monotonic manager which takes care of periodic behavior, or you declare deadline and budget using the CBS API in which case these properties are constant for all subsequent periods, unless you change them using the CBS API again. Task now only has to indicate and end of each period using rtems_rate_monotonic_period. .. index:: CBS overrun handler

37.2.3. Registering a Callback Function¶

In case tasks attached to servers are not aware of their execution time and happen to exceed it, the scheduler does not guarantee execution any more and pulls the priority of the task to background, which would possibly lead to immediate preemption (if there is at least one ready task with a higher pirority). However, the task is not blocked but a callback function is invoked. The callback function (rtems_cbs_budget_overrun) might be optionally registered upon a server creation (rtems_cbs_create_server).

This enables the user to define what should happen in case of budget overrun. There is obviously no space for huge operations because the priority is down and not real time any more, however, you still can at least in release resources for other tasks, restart the task or log an error information. Since the routine is called directly from kernel, use printk() instead of printf().

The calling convention of the callback function is:

void overrun_handler(
rtems_cbs_server_id server_id
);


37.2.4. Limitations¶

When using this scheduler you have to keep in mind several things:

• it_limitations

• In the current implementation it is possible to attach only a single task to each server.

• If you have a task attached to a server and you voluntatily block it in the beginning of its execution, its priority will be probably pulled to background upon unblock, thus not guaranteed deadline any more. This is because you are effectively raising computation time of the task. When unbocking, you should be always sure that the ratio between remaining computation time and remaining deadline is not higher that the utilization you have agreed with the scheduler.

37.3. Operations¶

37.3.1. Setting up a server¶

The directive rtems_cbs_create_server is used to create a new server that is characterized by rtems_cbs_parameters. You also might want to register the rtems_cbs_budget_overrun callback routine. After this step tasks can be attached to the server. The directive rtems_cbs_set_parameters can change the scheduling parameters to avoid destroying and creating a new server again.

37.3.2. Attaching Task to a Server¶

If a task is attached to a server using rtems_cbs_attach_thread, the task’s computation time per period is limited by the server and the deadline (period) of task is equal to deadline of the server which means if you conclude a period using rate_monotonic_period, the length of next period is always determined by the server’s property.

The task has a guaranteed bandwidth given by the server but should not exceed it, otherwise the priority is pulled to background until the start of next period and the rtems_cbs_budget_overrun callback function is invoked.

When attaching a task to server, the preemptability flag of the task is raised, otherwise it would not be possible to control the execution of the task.

37.3.3. Detaching Task from a Server¶

The directive rtems_cbs_detach_thread is just an inverse operation to the previous one, the task continues its execution with the initial priority.

Preemptability of the task is restored to the initial value.

37.3.4. Examples¶

The following example presents a simple common use of the API.

You can see the initialization and cleanup call here, if there are multiple tasks in the system, it is obvious that the initialization should be called before creating the task.

Notice also that in this case we decided to register an overrun handler, instead of which there could be NULL. This handler just prints a message to terminal, what else may be done here depends on a specific application.

During the periodic execution, remaining budget should be watched to avoid overrun.

void overrun_handler (
rtems_cbs_server_id server_id
)
{
printk( "Budget overrun, fixing the task\n" );
return;
}

)
{
rtems_id             rmid;
rtems_cbs_server_id  server_id;
rtems_cbs_parameters params;

params.budget = 4;

rtems_cbs_initialize();
rtems_cbs_create_server( &params, &overrun_handler, &server_id );
rtems_rate_monotonic_create( argument, &rmid );

while ( 1 ) {
break;
/* Perform some periodic action */
}

rtems_rate_monotonic_delete( rmid );
rtems_cbs_cleanup();
exit( 1 );
}


37.4. Directives¶

This section details the Constant Bandwidth Server’s directives. A subsection is dedicated to each of this manager’s directives and describes the calling sequence, related constants, usage, and status codes.

37.4.1. CBS_INITIALIZE - Initialize the CBS library¶

CALLING SEQUENCE:
int rtems_cbs_initialize( void );

DIRECTIVE STATUS CODES:
 RTEMS_CBS_OK successful initialization RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_NO_MEMORY not enough memory for data
DESCRIPTION:

This routine initializes the library in terms of allocating necessary memory for the servers. In case not enough memory is available in the system, RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_NO_MEMORY is returned, otherwise RTEMS_CBS_OK.

NOTES:

Additional memory per each server is allocated upon invocation of rtems_cbs_create_server.

Tasks in the system are not influenced, they still keep executing with their initial parameters.

37.4.2. CBS_CLEANUP - Cleanup the CBS library¶

CALLING SEQUENCE:
int rtems_cbs_cleanup( void );

DIRECTIVE STATUS CODES:
 RTEMS_CBS_OK always successful
DESCRIPTION:

This routine detaches all tasks from their servers, destroys all servers and returns memory back to the system.

NOTES:

All tasks continue executing with their initial priorities.

37.4.3. CBS_CREATE_SERVER - Create a new bandwidth server¶

CALLING SEQUENCE:
int rtems_cbs_create_server (
rtems_cbs_parameters     *params,
rtems_cbs_budget_overrun  budget_overrun_callback,
rtems_cbs_server_id      *server_id
);

DIRECTIVE STATUS CODES:
 RTEMS_CBS_OK successfully created RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_NO_MEMORY not enough memory for data RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_FULL maximum servers exceeded RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_INVALID_PARAMETER invalid input argument
DESCRIPTION:

This routine prepares an instance of a constant bandwidth server. The input parameter rtems_cbs_parameters specifies scheduling parameters of the server (period and budget). If these are not valid, RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_INVALID_PARAMETER is returned. The budget_overrun_callback is an optional callback function, which is invoked in case the server’s budget within one period is exceeded. Output parameter server_id becomes an id of the newly created server. If there is not enough memory, the RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_NO_MEMORY is returned. If the maximum server count in the system is exceeded, RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_FULL is returned.

NOTES:

No task execution is being influenced so far.

CALLING SEQUENCE:
int rtems_cbs_attach_thread (
rtems_cbs_server_id server_id,
);

DIRECTIVE STATUS CODES:
 RTEMS_CBS_OK successfully attached RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_FULL server maximum tasks exceeded RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_INVALID_PARAMETER invalid input argument RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_NOSERVER server is not valid
DESCRIPTION:

Attaches a task (task_id) to a server (server_id). The server has to be previously created. Now, the task starts to be scheduled according to the server parameters and not using initial priority. This implementation allows only one task per server, if the user tries to bind another task to the same server, RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_FULL is returned.

NOTES:

Tasks attached to servers become preemptible.

CALLING SEQUENCE:
int rtems_cbs_detach_thread (
rtems_cbs_server_id server_id,
);

DIRECTIVE STATUS CODES:
 RTEMS_CBS_OK successfully detached RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_INVALID_PARAMETER invalid input argument RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_NOSERVER server is not valid
DESCRIPTION:

This directive detaches a thread from server. The task continues its execution with initial priority.

NOTES:

The server can be reused for any other task.

37.4.6. CBS_DESTROY_SERVER - Destroy a bandwidth server¶

CALLING SEQUENCE:
int rtems_cbs_destroy_server (
rtems_cbs_server_id server_id
);

DIRECTIVE STATUS CODES:
 RTEMS_CBS_OK successfully destroyed RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_INVALID_PARAMETER invalid input argument RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_NOSERVER server is not valid
DESCRIPTION:

This directive destroys a server. If any task was attached to the server, the task is detached and continues its execution according to EDF rules with initial properties.

NOTES:

This again enables one more task to be created.

37.4.7. CBS_GET_SERVER_ID - Get an ID of a server¶

CALLING SEQUENCE:
int rtems_cbs_get_server_id (
rtems_cbs_server_id *server_id
);

DIRECTIVE STATUS CODES:
 RTEMS_CBS_OK successful RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_NOSERVER server is not valid
DESCRIPTION:

This directive returns an id of server belonging to a given task.

37.4.8. CBS_GET_PARAMETERS - Get scheduling parameters of a server¶

CALLING SEQUENCE:
rtems_cbs_get_parameters (
rtems_cbs_server_id   server_id,
rtems_cbs_parameters *params
);

DIRECTIVE STATUS CODES:
 RTEMS_CBS_OK successful RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_INVALID_PARAMETER invalid input argument RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_NOSERVER server is not valid
DESCRIPTION:

This directive returns a structure with current scheduling parameters of a given server (period and execution time).

NOTES:

It makes no difference if any task is assigned or not.

37.4.9. CBS_SET_PARAMETERS - Set scheduling parameters¶

CALLING SEQUENCE:
int rtems_cbs_set_parameters (
rtems_cbs_server_id   server_id,
rtems_cbs_parameters *params
);

DIRECTIVE STATUS CODES:
 RTEMS_CBS_OK successful RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_INVALID_PARAMETER invalid input argument RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_NOSERVER server is not valid
DESCRIPTION:

This directive sets new scheduling parameters to the server. This operation can be performed regardless of whether a task is assigned or not. If a task is assigned, the parameters become effective imediately, therefore it is recommended to apply the change between two subsequent periods.

NOTES:

There is an upper limit on both period and budget equal to (2^31)-1 ticks.

37.4.10. CBS_GET_EXECUTION_TIME - Get elapsed execution time¶

CALLING SEQUENCE:
int rtems_cbs_get_execution_time (
rtems_cbs_server_id    server_id,
time_t                *exec_time,
time_t                *abs_time
);

DIRECTIVE STATUS CODES:
 RTEMS_CBS_OK successful RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_INVALID_PARAMETER invalid input argument RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_NOSERVER server is not valid
DESCRIPTION:

This routine returns consumed execution time (exec_time) of a server during the current period.

NOTES:

Absolute time (abs_time) not supported now.

37.4.11. CBS_GET_REMAINING_BUDGET - Get remaining execution time¶

CALLING SEQUENCE:
int rtems_cbs_get_remaining_budget (
rtems_cbs_server_id  server_id,
time_t              *remaining_budget
);

DIRECTIVE STATUS CODES:
 RTEMS_CBS_OK successful RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_INVALID_PARAMETER invalid input argument RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_NOSERVER server is not valid
DESCRIPTION:

This directive returns remaining execution time of a given server for current period.

NOTES:

If the execution time approaches zero, the assigned task should finish computations of the current period.

37.4.12. CBS_GET_APPROVED_BUDGET - Get scheduler approved execution time¶

CALLING SEQUENCE:
int rtems_cbs_get_approved_budget (
rtems_cbs_server_id  server_id,
time_t              *appr_budget
);

DIRECTIVE STATUS CODES:
 RTEMS_CBS_OK successful RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_INVALID_PARAMETER invalid input argument RTEMS_CBS_ERROR_NOSERVER server is not valid
DESCRIPTION:

This directive returns server’s approved budget for subsequent periods.